Vol 14 (2021)

Original Article(s)

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    Nurses are faced with tremendous pressure when providing brain-dead patients with care. There is limited guidance for nurses on the care of these patients. The present study aimed to report the experiences of nurses regarding the care of patients diagnosed with brain death.Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 nurses and other stakeholders, and the observations and field notes were analyzed using continuous and comparative analysis based on grounded theory.The qualitative analysis of the data resulted in extraction of six final categories, including 'facing increased tensions and conflicts', 'organ donation: a distinct care element', 'inconsistency of care management', 'effective care requirements', 'challenges, rights and duty requirements', and 'moral obligation to provide holistic care until the last minute'. Data analysis identified 'Challenges, rights and duty requirements' as the main issue and showed that the nurses managed this issue using the strategy of 'moral obligation to provide holistic care until the last minute' as the core variable.According to the results, it is recommended that the healthcare system (especially hospital management) take supportive action for nurses in various fields of care of brain-dead patients to resolve educational, moral and legal challenges.


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    Nurses need to be resilient to be able to endure their working conditions, and their moral courage can affect their resilience. This work aimed at studying the relationship between resilience and professional moral courage among nurses working in hospitals.This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 375 nurses working in teaching hospitals in the city of Ardabil in Iran in 2019. Data was collected using the following questionnaires: a demographic questionnaire, Sekerka et al. Moral Courage Scale and Davidson-Connor Resilience Scale. The reliability of the Davidson-Connor Resilience Scale, and Moral Courage Scale were found to be 89% and 85% using the test-retest method. The data were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test, variance analysis, and linear regression using the SPSS software version 24.In participating nurses, mean scores were 6.35±0.5 for total moral courage (favorable) and 79.35±0.35 (moderate) for resilience, respectively. A positive and significant relationship was observed between resilience and professional moral courage (P<0.05, r=0.1). Given the positive and significant relationship between resilience and professional moral courage, nurses require to have the high moral courage to enhance their resilience. Determining factors affecting moral courage and resilience, as well as finding strategies and creating an appropriate moral climate can increase nurses' morally courageous behaviors and resilience.

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    Providing care for terminally ill neonates is an important issue in NICUs. This research aimed to determine nurses’ attitudes toward providing care for terminally ill neonates and their families. A total of 138 nurses working in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences participated in this cross-sectional study via convenience sampling in 2019. The Data collection tool was the Frommelt attitudes toward caring for terminally ill persons and their families scale. The nurses in this study had the most positive attitudes toward the items “nursing care should include the family of the terminally ill patient, too” (4.2 ± 0.6) and “the care provider can prepare the patient or his/her family for death” (4.1 ± 0.7). The nurses had the least positive attitude toward the item “the time spent on caring for terminally ill patients creates a sense of frustration in me” (1.06 ± 1). The mean score of the attitudes of NICU nurses toward caring for terminally ill neonates and their families indicates the necessity of improving this attitude.

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    Although ethics is an essential part of medical education, little attention has been paid to ethics education during the clerkship phase, where medical students observe how physicians make decisions regarding various ethical problems. Specific nuances and cultural contexts such as working in a rural setting can determine ethical issues raised. This phenomenology study aimed to explore ethical issues experienced by Indonesian students during clinical clerkship in a rural setting. In-depth interviews were used to explore students’ experiences. Participants were ten students, selected on gender and clerkship year variations. Data saturation was reached after eight interviews, followed by two additional interviews. Thematic analysis was used in this study, and trustworthiness was ensured through data and investigator triangulation, member checking, and audit trail. Three main themes found in this study were limited facilities and resources, healthcare financing and consent issues, as well as unprofessional behavior of healthcare providers. Many ethical issues related to substandard care were associated to limited resources and complexities within the healthcare system in the rural setting. Early exposure to recurrent ethical problems in healthcare can help students prepare for their future career as a physician in a rural setting.

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    This study was designed to facilitate freshman medical students’ adaptation to the dissection room and familiarize them with the related ethical codes. Single-group post-test design research was conducted at Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2018 - 2019. The program began with a brief explanation of the necessity of the subject, and after a documentary film was shown, the principles of professional and ethical behaviors in the dissection room were discussed by a panel of experts. In the end, a valid and reliable evaluation questionnaire (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.89) was distributed among the students. A total of 129 questionnaires were completed and returned. Overall, 94.4% of the students believed that the program provided an excellent opportunity to reflect on professional behaviors during practical anatomy sessions. In addition, 92.8% of the students believed that they would use the ethical points mentioned in the program in the future. Content analysis of the open questions produced three main categories: "motivating learning", "application of theory in practice" and "changing the attitude toward responsibility". The results indicate that adequate preparation for cadaver dissection sessions and learning about professional behavior codes in the first exposure can help medical students to better understand the principles of professional behaviors.  

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    High ideal hybrid intelligence of managers is among the factors that can improve employees’ organizational commitment. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the relationship between managers’ ideal hybrid intelligence and employees’ organizational commitment in the Vice Chancellors’ Headquarters of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. This was a descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study conducted in 2017 - 2018. The research sample size consisted of 86 senior and middle-level managers selected through census method, as well as 181 employees, selected using the Kerjecie and Morgan table. The research tool was an ideal hybrid intelligence questionnaire consisting of 102 questions on cultural, moral and spiritual intelligence, and also Meyer and Allens’ organizational commitment questionnaire including 24 questions. Face validity and reliability of each questionnaire were confirmed by an expert panel and Chronbach’s alpha method. The data were analyzed by SPSS software, and descriptive results were shown through mean and standard deviation, and analytical results by inferential tests. The results showed that the ideal hybrid intelligence of the Vice Chancellors’ Headquarters managers and employees’ organizational commitment were at a desirable level. Also, there was a significant correlation between cultural, moral and spiritual intelligence as constituents of the ideal hybrid intelligence of managers and employees’ organizational commitment. We found that ideal hybrid intelligence may affect employees’ organizational commitment, but it should be mentioned that other forms of intelligence may also affect organizational commitment.

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    Values ​​predispose people to make the right and especially ethical decisions, and are important for good performance in medical sciences. Students’ lived experiences and the value-rich exposures during their education are some effective means of achieving professional values that help them build their own value frameworks. In this phenomenology of practice study, we aimed to explore and describe the lived experiences of a sample of medical students in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences regarding their value-rich exposures. In-depth interviews, students’ written stories, recorded video interviews related to past trips and photographs were used to collect data. The data was analyzed based on Van Manen’s thematic analysis method. Five themes emerged from the data: “in the shadow of a supportive mentor”, “a well-orchestrated, value-rich program”, “human interactions in a value system”, “acquiring values in a real-life environment”, “and seeking values in oneself”. Our study identified different dimensions of value-rich exposure based on the lived experiences of medical students and pointed out some issues that medical education planners can consider to improve the quality of value-based education for medical students.

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    Medical professionalism has a crucial role in educating medical students. The role of professionalism in the clinical environment is therefore an important factor in medical education. This study attempts to evaluate the opinions of medical students in the teaching hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) about the professionalism environment in this university.

    A sample of 165 students filled out the Persian translation of UMKC-SOM (Climate of Professionalism Survey) questionnaire. This instrument evaluates students’ perspectives on the degree of adherence to professionalism by faculty, residents and other students.

    The results of the study revealed that the total score of professionalism climate was 53.9 for faculty, 42.09 for residents, and 50.76 for students and the difference between these three groups was statistically significant (p-value < 0.01). Results of further analysis through post-hoc tests for multiple comparisons among the groups revealed that the students found their fellow students and faculty more professional than residents. The study also showed that the medical ethics course had no impact on perceptions observations (p-values > 0.05).The study results also revealed that the students found their fellow students and faculty more professional than residents. This finding demonstrates the importance of teaching professionalism to residents since they serve as role models for students.Further multicenter studies are needed to improve the professionalism climate in the medical teaching environment.  

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    This study was conducted to develop and validate an instrument to measure the medical professionalism climate in clinical settings. The item pool was developed based on the Tehran University of Medical Sciences Guideline for Professional Conduct. The items were distributed between two questionnaires, one for health-care providers and the other for patients. To assess the construct validity of the questionnaires, 350 health-care providers and 88 patients were enrolled in the study. The reliability of the questionnaires was evaluated by calculating Cronbach’s alpha and ICC.

    At first a 74-item pool was generated. After assessing and confirming face and content validity, 41 items remained in the final version of the scale. Exploratory factor analysis revealed the three factors of “personal behavior”, “collegiality” and “respect for patient autonomy” in a 25-item questionnaire for service providers and a single factor of “professional behavior” in a 6-item questionnaire for patients. The three factors explained 51.775% of the variance for service providers’ questionnaire and the single factor explained 63.9% of the variance for patients’ questionnaire.

    The findings demonstrated that from the viewpoints of patients and service providers, this instrument could be applied to assess the medical professionalism climate in hospital clinical settings.

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    Due to the unique nature of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and its moral distress, this study aimed to investigate moral distress in the NICU. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 234 physicians and nurses working in the neonatal wards of eight hospitals. The Corley’s Moral Distress Scale was used to collect data. Findings showed that 25 of the participants were physicians and 209 were nurses. The intensity and frequency of distress among physicians and nurses were assessed as moderate. The mean intensity and frequency of moral distress among nurses and physicians were 48.3%, 41.5% and 46.46%, 15.62% respectively. The results showed that the mean intensity and frequency of distress were higher, however not significantly, among nurses. The intensity and frequency of moral distress had a statistically significant and direct correlation with the intention to leave and the number of staff in each working shift among the nurses. Moral distress in the NICU practitioners was moderate, so addressing this issue and trying to alleviate it was important. Identifying the causes behind moral distress can help adopt appropriate measures to prevent and reduce them.

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    Although conscience, as an ethical concept, has emerged widely in the field of nursing, its functional meaning and its effects on nurses' performance are not clear. Therefore, the present study aimed to analyze the concept of conscience in the context of Iranian nurses’ ethical performance.  This study used a hybrid model including theoretical, fieldwork, and final analytic stages. In the theoretical phase, English and Persian articles published up to 2020 and indexed by scientific databases were analyzed. In the fieldwork phase, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted on nurse participants. The last two stages were jointly considered to draw the study’s conclusions. In the theoretical phase, conscience was considered as a context-dependent concept, an inner voice, and a criterion for distinguishing right from wrong. The fieldwork phase’ results were categorized into three themes: “perception of conscience”, “commands of conscience”, and “obedience to conscience. The final definition was reached by merging the theoretical and field stages. This article aimed at investigating the relevance of conscience to ethical practice in the nursing field. Findings show that conscience is an inner feeling or voice that plays a vital role in providing ethical care by nurses.  

Review Article(s)

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    One important part of a nurse’s job is to create and help maintain a safe work environment. Evidence shows that negative behaviors such as incivility are not uncommon in the nursing profession. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine the prevalence of incivility toward nurses. 
    For this purpose, all observational studies that primarily investigated the rate of incivility toward nurses were selected. The electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Sciences, Magiran, IranDoc, and Scopus were searched for studies published during the period of January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2019. The quality of studies was assessed using Hoy’s Critical Assessment Checklist. The study was undertaken using the random effects model, and data were analyzed using STATA14. 
    Data on 60 articles, including data on 30801 individuals, published between 1997 and 2019, entered the study. The findings showed the prevalence of incivility to be 55.10% (95%, CI: 48.05, 62.06).

    Due to the high prevalence of uncivil behavior, especially of the verbal type, nursing managers should identify risk factors in the workplace. Planners should develop programs to increase workplace safety, especially in centers that are most exposed to these behaviors. It is also recommended that future studies focus on implementation of effective evidence-based interventions based on organizational culture.