Relationship between resilience and professional moral courage among nurses
Nurses need to be resilient to be able to endure their working conditions, and their moral courage can affect their resilience. This work aimed at studying the relationship between resilience and professional moral courage among nurses working in hospitals.This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 375 nurses working in teaching hospitals in the city of Ardabil in Iran in 2019. Data was collected using the following questionnaires: a demographic questionnaire, Sekerka et al. Moral Courage Scale and Davidson-Connor Resilience Scale. The reliability of the Davidson-Connor Resilience Scale, and Moral Courage Scale were found to be 89% and 85% using the test-retest method. The data were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test, variance analysis, and linear regression using the SPSS software version 24.In participating nurses, mean scores were 6.35±0.5 for total moral courage (favorable) and 79.35±0.35 (moderate) for resilience, respectively. A positive and significant relationship was observed between resilience and professional moral courage (P<0.05, r=0.1). Given the positive and significant relationship between resilience and professional moral courage, nurses require to have the high moral courage to enhance their resilience. Determining factors affecting moral courage and resilience, as well as finding strategies and creating an appropriate moral climate can increase nurses' morally courageous behaviors and resilience.
Daniel KM, Smith CY. Present and future needs for nurses. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research. 2018;23(1): e12122.
McCarthy J, Gastmans C. Moral distress: a review of the argument-based nursing ethics literature. Nurs Ethics. 2015; 22(1): 131-52.
Nikbakht Nasrabadi A, Khoobi M, Cheraghi MA, Joolaei S, Hedayat MA. The lived experiences of clinical nurse managers regarding moral distress. J Med Ethics Hist Med. 2018; 11: 13.
Bayat M, Shahriyari M, Keshvari M. The relationship between moral distress in nurses and ethical climate in selected hospitals of the Iranian social security organization. J Med Ethics Hist Med. 2019; 12: 8.
Holden RJ, Scanlon MC, Patel NR, et al. A human factors framework and study of the effect of nursing workload on patient safety and employee quality of working life. BMJ Qual Saf. 2011; 20(1): 15-24.
Delgado C, Upton D, Ranse K, Furness T, Foster K. Nurses’ resilience and the emotional labour of nursing work: an integrative review of empirical literature. Int J Nurs Stud. 2017; 70: 71-88.
McAllister M, McKinnon J. The importance of teaching and learning resilience in the health disciplines: a critical review of the literature. Nurse Educ Today. 2009; 29(4): 371-9.
Foster K, Roche M, Delgado C, Cuzzillo C, Giandinoto JA, Furness T. Resilience and mental health nursing: an integrative review of international literature. Int J Ment Health Nurs. 2019; 28(1): 71-85.
Oh Y, Gastmans C. Moral distress experienced by nurses: a quantitative literature review. Nurs Ethics. 2015; 22(1): 15-31.
Ajri-Khameslou M, Abbaszadeh A, Borhani F. Emergency nurses as second victims of error: a qualitative study. Adv Emerg Nurs J. 2017; 39(1): 68-76.
Fazljoo SE, Abbaszadeh A, Loghmani L. Comparison of moral reasoning of nursing students and nurses in Meybod city in facing with dilemmas. Medical Ethics Journal. 2018; 12: 1-9.
Moosavi SS, Borhani F, Abbaszadeh A. The moral courage of nurses employed in hospitals affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Hayat. 2016; 22(4): 339-49. (in Persian)
Kleemola E, Leino-Kilpi H, Numminen O. Care situations demanding moral courage: content analysis of nurses’ experiences. Nurs Ethics. 2020; 27(3): 714-25.
Oshio A, Taku K, Hirano M, Saeed G. Resilience and big five personality traits: a meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences. 2018; 127: 54-60.
Ebrahimi Ghassemi A, Zhang N, Marigliano E. Concepts of courage and resilience in nursing: a proposed conceptual model. Contemp Nurse. 2019; 55(4-5): 450-7.
Connor KM, Davidson JR. Development of a new resilience scale: the Connor‐Davidson resilience scale (CD‐RISC). Depress Anxiety. 2003; 18(2): 76-82.
Sekerka LE, Bagozzi RP, Charnigo R. Facing ethical challenges in the workplace: conceptualizing and measuring professional moral courage. Journal of Business Ethics. 2009; 89(4): 565-79.
Connor J. Psychometric Evaluation of the Professional Moral Courage (PMC) Scale in a Nurse Executive Population [dissertation]. New York (USA). Molloy College; 2017.
Mohammadi S, Borhani F, Roshanzadeh M. Relationship between moral distress and moral courage in nurses. Iranian Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine. 2014; 7(3): 26-35.
Deldar K, Froutan R, Dalvand S, Gheshlagh RG, Mazloum SR. The relationship between resiliency and burnout in Iranian nurses: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2018; 6(11): 2250-6.
Çam O, Büyükbayram A. Nurses' resilience and effective factors. Journal of Psychiatric Nursing [Psikiyatri Hemsireleri Dernegi]. 2017; 8(2): 118-26.
Mealer M, Jones J, Newman J, McFann KK, Rothbaum B, Moss M. The presence of resilience is associated with a healthier psychological profile in intensive care unit (ICU) nurses: results of a national survey. Int J Nurs Stud. 2012; 49(3): 292-9.
Gillespie BM, Chaboyer W, Wallis M, Grimbeek P. Resilience in the operating room: developing and testing of a resilience model. J Adv Nurs. 2007; 59(4): 427-38.
Abdollah Zadeh R, Moodi M, Allahyari A, Khanjani N. The relationship between spiritual intelligence and resiliency of patients suffering from cancer in South Khorasan State. Nursing Journal of the Vulnerable. 2015; 2(3): 15-24.
Lee KJ, Forbes ML, Lukasiewicz GJ, et al. Promoting staff resilience in the pediatric intensive care unit. Am J CritCare. 2015; 24(5): 422-30.
Abbasi M, Fadavi M, Bazmi S. The underlying factors affecting the ethical performance of health service providers when faced with disasters: a qualitative study. J Med Ethics Hist Med. 2017; 10: 14.
Mahdaviseresht R, Atashzadeh-Shoorideh F, Borhani F. Correlation between moral sensitivity and moral courage in nurses of selected hospitals affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Iranian Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine. 2015; 8(3): 27-39.
Hannah ST, Avolio BJ, Walumbwa FO. Relationships between authentic leadership, moral courage, and ethical and pro-social behaviors. Business Ethics Quarterly. 2011; 21(4): 555-78.
Gallagher A. Moral distress and moral courage in everyday nursing practice. Online J Issues Nurs. 2011; 16(2): 8.
Nejadsarvari N, Abbasi M, Borhani F, et al. Relationship of moral sensitivity and distress among physicians. Trauma Mon. 2015 ;20(2): e26075.
Nakaya M, Oshio A, Kaneko H. Correlations for adolescent resilience scale with big five personality traits. Psychol Rep. 2006; 98(3): 927-30.
Bazrafshan M-R, Zahmatbar S, Delam H, Dehghan A, Jokar M, Kavi E. The relationship between resiliency and five dimensions of personality in nurses and paramedical staff in Lar and Gerash hospitals. Journal of Health Sciences & Surveillance System. 2019; 7(1): 2-7.
|Issue||Vol 14 (2021)|
|Professional moral courage; Resilience; Nurses; Moral development, Economics.|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|