Value-rich exposures in medical education: phenomenology of practice according to the lived experiences of medical students in Iran
Values predispose people to make the right and especially ethical decisions, and are important for good performance in medical sciences. Students’ lived experiences and the value-rich exposures during their education are some effective means of achieving professional values that help them build their own value frameworks. In this phenomenology of practice study, we aimed to explore and describe the lived experiences of a sample of medical students in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences regarding their value-rich exposures. In-depth interviews, students’ written stories, recorded video interviews related to past trips and photographs were used to collect data. The data was analyzed based on Van Manen’s thematic analysis method. Five themes emerged from the data: “in the shadow of a supportive mentor”, “a well-orchestrated, value-rich program”, “human interactions in a value system”, “acquiring values in a real-life environment”, “and seeking values in oneself”. Our study identified different dimensions of value-rich exposure based on the lived experiences of medical students and pointed out some issues that medical education planners can consider to improve the quality of value-based education for medical students.
Wright-St Clair VA, Newcombe DB. Values and ethics in practice-based decision making. Can J Occup Ther. 2014; 81(3): 154-62.
Ssebunnya GM. Beyond the hidden curriculum: the challenging search for authentic values in medical ethics education. South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. 2013; 6(2): 48-51.
Marzorati C, Pravettoni G. Value as the key concept in the health care system: how it has influenced medical practice and clinical decision-making processes. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2017; 10: 101-6.
Grundstein-Amado R. Values education: a new direction for medical education. J Med Ethics. 1995; 21(3): 174-8.
Halstead JM, Taylor MJ. Learning and teaching about values: a review of recent research. Cambridge Journal of Education. 2000; 30(2): 169-202.
Kenny N, Shelton WN, Eds. Lost Virtue: Professional Character Development in Medical Education: Advanced in Bioethics. UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited; 2006.
Goldie J. Review of ethics curricula in undergraduate medical education. Med educ. 2000; 34(2): 108-19.
Sullivan BT, DeFoor MT, Hwang B, Flowers WJ, Strong W. A novel peer-directed curriculum to enhance medical ethics training for medical students: a single-institution experience. J Med Educ Curric Dev. 2020; 7: 2382120519899148.
Sabeghi H, Afshar L, Foroutan SA, Yazdani S. Medical students' value-rich exposures in clinical setting during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Med Ethics Hist Med. 2020;13(Suppl.): 26.
Godbold R, Lees A. Ethics education for health professionals: a values based approach. Nurse Educ Pract. 2013; 13(6): 553-60.
Streubert HJ, Carpenter DR. Qualitative Research in Nursing: Advancing the Humanistic Imperative, 5th ed. USA: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2010.
Errasti‐Ibarrondo B, Jordán JA, Díez‐Del‐Corral MP, Arantzamendi M. van Manen's phenomenology of practice: how can it contribute to nursing? Nursing Inquiry. 2019; 26(1): e12259.
van Manen M. Phenomenology of Practice. Phenomenology and Practice. 2007; 1(1): 11-30.
van Manen M. Phenomenology of Practice: Meaning-Giving Methods in Phenomenological Research and Writing. USA: Routledge; 2016.
van Manen M. Researching Lived Experience, Human Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy, 2nd ed. USA: Left Coast Press; 1997.
van Manen M. Researching Lived Experience: Human Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy, 2nd ed. USA: Routledge; 2016.
Corbin J, Strauss A. Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, 3rd. USA: SAGE Publications; 2015.
Birden H, Glass N, Wilson I, Harrison M, Usherwood T, Nass D. Teaching professionalism in medical education: a Best Evidence Medical Education (BEME) systematic review. BEME Guide No. 25. Med Teach. 2013; 35(7): e1252-e66.
Giubilini A, Milnes S, Savulescu J. The medical ethics curriculum in medical schools: present and future. J Clin Ethics. 2016; 27(5): 129-45.
Goldie J. The formation of professional identity in medical students: considerations for educators. Med Teach. 2012; 34(9): e641-8.
Cusimano MC, Ting DK, Kwong JL, Van Melle E, MacDonald SE, Cline C. Medical students learn professionalism in near-peer led, discussion-based small groups. Teach Learn Med. 2019; 31(3): 307-18.
Branch Jr WT. Small-group teaching emphasizing reflection can positively influence medical students' values. Acad Med. 2001; 76(12): 1171-2.
Genn J. AMEE medical education guide No. 23 (part 1): curriculum, environment, climate, quality and change in medical education–a unifying perspective. Med Teach. 2001; 23(4): 337-44.
Behrendt M, Franklin T. A review of research on school field trips and their value in education. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education. 2014; 9(3): 235-45.
Fredholm A, Manninen K, Hjelmqvist H, Silén C. Authenticity made visible in medical students’ experiences of feeling like a doctor. Int J Med Educ. 2019; 10: 113-21.
Dong H, Sherer R, Lio J, Jiang I, Cooper B. Twelve tips for using clinical cases to teach medical ethics. Med Teach. 2018; 40(6): 633-8.
|Issue||Vol 14 (2021)|
|Medical students; Medical ethics; Medical education; Value-rich exposure; Phenomenology of practice.|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|