Vol 15 (2022)

Original Article(s)

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    This study aims to assess the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Attitudes Toward Plagiarism Questionnaire (ATPQ) among Iranian medical sciences postgraduate students and faculty members. In this study, the ATPQ developed by Mavrinac et al. in 2010 was translated into Persian. After assessment of face and content validity, we distributed the ATPQ draft among 286 Iranian medical science postgraduate students and faculty members. Explanatory and confirmatory factor analysis were applied, and Cronbach's alpha was used to measure the reliability of the ATPQ. All the items of our English version of the ATPQ were approved by the developer of the original ATPQ, and two were revised in the cognitive interview. Construct validity assessment showed that three items were not seriously involved in the extracted factors. The Persian version of the ATPQ had 26 items, five factors and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.81%, and the combined value explained 38.24% of the total variance of this scale. Two new factors of “perceived control” and “attitude toward self-plagiarism” were extracted and incorporated into the Persian version. To conclude, the ATPQ is a valid, reliable, and convenient instrument to determine attitudes toward plagiarism among Iranian medical science postgraduate students and faculty members.

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    Media is an opportunity for health professionals; however, it is not free of threats. Fixing the threats requires professional systematization through developing practical guidelines, which brings us to the goal this study was designed to achieve. The study was conducted qualitatively through literature review, semi-structured interviews, and a focus group discussion with health and media experts, as a result of which 486 codes were extracted and classified into 4 groups. The first group was addressed to media professionals and contained 126 codes in 5 categories: seeking and reporting the truth, harm minimization, integrity, independence, and respect for the rights of others. The second and third groups were addressed to health professionals, the former (150 codes) dealing with formal media, and the latter (190 codes) dealing with cyberspace. These groups were both categorized into 6 categories: scientific demeanor, beneficence, harm minimization,integrity, maintaining the dignity of the profession and professionals, and respect for the rights of others. The fourth group was addressed to the public audience and contained 20 codes categorized into 2 categories: ethics of belief, and ethics of (re-)publishing. Since the study was conducted during the pandemic/infodemic, the proposed codes can help reduce possible conflicts in similar future situations.

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    Breaking bad news to patients is an essential aspect of the physician-patient relationship, but in Iran, this relationship is often disrupted by patients’ families. This study investigates the views of patients' companions on breaking cancer news. In this descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study, we conducted research on 170 cancer patients’ companions and 170 non-cancer patients’ companions. We designed a questionnaire to investigate the subjects’ opinions and used CVI, CVR, Cronbach's alpha and ICC for evaluation. In order to compare groups, we used Mann Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square tests and Spearman’s correlation. Most participants believed that patients should be informed of their diagnosis. Cancer patients' companions were more willing to learn the bad news in case they were diagnosed with cancer and were less likely to choose “despair” as the reason for non-disclosure (71% vs. 44%).There was no difference between the two groups in willingness to break the cancer news to patients, choosing who should be informed first, and the reasons for non-disclosure. Most participants believed the family should be the first to know the diagnosis. In this study, most participants believed that patients should be informed of their diagnosis. However, they preferred to learn about the diagnosis before the patient, which confirms the importance of educating the families about autonomy.

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    Ethical decision-making and professional behavior are essential skills in nursing profession, hence educational programs should be designed to enable future nurses to tackle problems related to ethical decision-making. This descriptive, correlational and analytical study aimed at determining the ability of Iranian nursing students to make ethical decisions as well as relationship between such decisions and professional behavior. The present study used census to select 140 freshmen from the School of Nursing and Midwifery of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Data collection tools included a demographic questionnaire, the Nursing Dilemma Test (NDT) comprising two indices of “nurse’s principled thinking” and “practical consideration”, as well as the Nursing Students Professional Behaviors Scale (NSPBS). The mean scores obtained were 41.3±5.7 for “nurse’s principled thinking”, 21.3±3.7 for “practical consideration”, and 119.07±11.79 for professional behavior. Relationships of professional behavior with “nurse’s principled thinking” and “practical consideration” were insignificant (P>0.05). According to the present study’s findings, nursing students’ weakness in applying ethical concepts to decisions and professional behaviors was due to a gap between scientific material learned and clinical practice. Hence, novel training strategies and programs should be designed to reduce such theory-practice gap