Original Article

Does the Farsi version of attitude toward plagiarism questionnaire have acceptable psychometric properties?


This study aims to assess the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Attitudes Toward Plagiarism Questionnaire (ATPQ) among Iranian medical sciences postgraduate students and faculty members. In this study, the ATPQ developed by Mavrinac et al. in 2010 was translated into Persian. After assessment of face and content validity, we distributed the ATPQ draft among 286 Iranian medical science postgraduate students and faculty members. Explanatory and confirmatory factor analysis were applied, and Cronbach's alpha was used to measure the reliability of the ATPQ. All the items of our English version of the ATPQ were approved by the developer of the original ATPQ, and two were revised in the cognitive interview. Construct validity assessment showed that three items were not seriously involved in the extracted factors. The Persian version of the ATPQ had 26 items, five factors and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.81%, and the combined value explained 38.24% of the total variance of this scale. Two new factors of “perceived control” and “attitude toward self-plagiarism” were extracted and incorporated into the Persian version. To conclude, the ATPQ is a valid, reliable, and convenient instrument to determine attitudes toward plagiarism among Iranian medical science postgraduate students and faculty members.

Thurmond BH. Student Plagiarism and The Use of a Plagiarism Detection Tool by Community College Faculty [dissertation]. Indiana (USA). Indiana State University; 2010.

COPE. What to do if you suspect plagiarism (a) suspected plagiarism in submitted manuscript. [cited March 2022]; Available from: https://publicationethics.org/files/u7140/plagiarism%20A.pdf

Hansen B. Combating plagiarism. CQ Researcher. 2003; 13(32): 775-96.

Park C. In other (people's) words: Plagiarism by university students--literature and lessons. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education. 2003; 28(5): 471-88.

Cameron C, Zhao H, McHugh MK. Publication ethics and the emerging scientific workforce: understanding ‘plagiarism’ in a global context. Acad Med. 2012; 87(1): 10.1097/ACM.0b013e31823aadc7.

Comas-Forgas R, Sureda-Negre J. Academic plagiarism: Explanatory factors from students’ perspective. Journal of Academic Ethics. 2010;8(3):217-32.

Sutton A, Taylor D, Johnston C. A model for exploring student understandings of plagiarism. Journal of Further and Higher Education. 2014; 38(1): 129-46.

Badea-Voiculescu O. Letter to editor. Attitude of Romanian medicine students towards plagiarism. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2013; 54(3 Suppl): 907-8.

Hofmann B, Myhr AI, Holm S. Scientific dishonesty-a nationwide survey of doctoral students in Norway. BMC Med Ethics. 2013; 14: 3.

Stone TH, Jawahar I, Kisamore JL. Predicting academic misconduct intentions and behavior using the theory of planned behavior and personality. Basic and Applied Social Psychology. 2010; 32(1): 35-45.

Cronan TP, Mullins JK, Douglas DE. Further understanding factors that explain freshman business students’ academic integrity intention and behavior: Plagiarism and sharing homework. Journal of Business Ethics. 2018; 147:197-220.

Mustikarini A, Winardi RD, Azalea M. Why do accounting students at higher learning institutions conduct an academic dishonesty? SHS Web of Conferences. 2017; 34: 06008.

Hadji M, Asghari F, Yunesian M, Kabiri P, Fotouhi A. Assessing the prevalence of publication misconduct among Iranian authors using a double list experiment. Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2016; 45(7): 897-904.

Babaii E, Nejadghanbar H. Plagiarism among Iranian graduate students of language studies: perspectives and causes. Ethics & Behavior. 2017; 27(3): 240-58.

Ajzen I. The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 1991; 50(2):179-211.

Ling T, Soper B, Buxton M, et al. How Do You Get Clinicians Involved in Quality Improvement? UK: RAND Europe Publications; 2010.

Husain FM, Al-Shaibani GKS, Mahfoodh OHA. Perceptions of and attitudes toward plagiarism and factors contributing to plagiarism: a review of studies. Journal of Academic Ethics. 2017;15(2):167-95.

Uzun AM, Kilis S. Investigating antecedents of plagiarism using extended theory of planned behavior. Computers & Education. 2020; 144: 103700.

Mavrinac M, Brumini G, Bilić-Zulle L, Petrovečki M. Construction and validation of attitudes toward plagiarism questionnaire. Croat Med J. 2010; 51(3): 195-201.

WHO. Process of translation and adaptation of instruments. [cited March 2022]; Available from: https://www.mhinnovation.net/sites/default/files/files/WHO%20Guidelines%20on%20Translation%20and%20Adaptation%20of%20Instruments.docx

Colton D, Covert RW. Designing and Constructing Instruments for Social Research and Evaluation. USA: John Wiley & Sons; 2007.

Lynn SJ, Das LS, Hallquist MN, Williams JC. Mindfulness, acceptance, and hypnosis: cognitive and clinical perspectives. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2006; 54(2): 143-66.

Lioret S, Ferreres A, Hernandez A, Tomas I. The exploratory factor analysis of items: guided analysis based on empirical data and software. Anales de Psicologia. 2017; 33(2): 417-32.

Watkins MW. Exploratory factor analysis: a guide to best practice. Journal of Black Psychology. 2018; 44(3): 219-46.

Child D. The Essentials of Factor Analysis, 3rd ed. UK: Bloomsbury Academic; 2006.

Cole DA. Utility of confirmatory factor analysis in test validation research. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1987; 55(4): 584-94.

Hu LT, Bentler PM. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal. 1999; 6(1):1-55.

Sohrabi Z, Ghasemzadeh M, Salehi L. Psychometric analysis scale of attitude toward plagiarism based on the theory of planned behavior in the students of Iran University of Medical Sciences. Journal of Medical Education Development. 2018; 10(28): 53-64.

Zayim M. Attitudes towards plagiarism scales development and initial validation. [cited March 2022]; Available from: https://eera-ecer.de/ecer-programmes/conference/6/contribution/17089/

Bettaieb J, Cherif I, Kharroubi G, Mrabet A. Attitudes towards plagiarism among academics of the faculty of medicine of Tunis. Account Res. 2020; 27(8): 521-37.

Min SK. Plagiarism in medical scientific research: can continuing education and alarming prevent this misconduct? Vasc Specialist Int. 2020; 36(2): 53-6.

Tindall IK, Curtis GJ. Negative emotionality predicts attitudes toward plagiarism. Journal of Academic Ethics. 2020;18: 89-102.

Lynch J, Everett B, Ramjan LM, Callins R, Glew P, Salamonson Y. Plagiarism in nursing education: an integrative review. J Clin Nurs. 2017; 26(19-20): 2845-64.

IssueVol 15 (2022) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/jmehm.v15i1.8900
Plagiarism Translations Attitude Psychometrics

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Tajalli S, Ashghali Farahani M, Hamzekhani M, Shirinabadi Farahani A, Pourgholam Amiji N, Mavrinac M, Aliyari R. Does the Farsi version of attitude toward plagiarism questionnaire have acceptable psychometric properties?. J Med Ethics Hist Med. 2022;15.