Vol 3 (2010)
Financial shortage in resource-limited and poor countries restricts treatment in HIV-infected patients especially in poor countries. Higher HIV prevalence in poorer countries makes drug rationing a real concern. Different countries solve the problem with different methods regarding WHO guidelines, but fairness and equity should be a major consideration in drug rationing. This paper is aimed at reviewing different strategic approaches to drug rationing in AIDS treatment and then discusses pharmacists' role. In conclusion, there is no fair and equitable strategy, and in each society, cultural, ethical and socioeconomic issues along with considering a critical role for pharmacists must be taken into account.
Donated materials in assisted reproductive technologies: an ethico- legal analysis of art legislations worldwide
This paper provides an appraisal of countries that have legislations pertaining to assisted reproductive technologies (ART). In doing so, the paper highlights the emphasis on the protection of reproductive freedom of the couples seeking ART treatment. This belief is grounded primarily on the basic notion of liberalism that attaches primary importance to respect for individual freedom, which is the foundation of the notion of reproductive rights as understood by western standards today. The main aim of the appraisal is to see how these legislations address the drastic changes in familial relationships when ART involves the use of donated materials.
Teaching ethics to nurses leads to their involvement in providing high quality care, enable them to duly encounter ethical issues. One of the key elements of educational systems is nursing instructors. Even though lots of studies show the role of instructors in students' learning, their role in promotion of professional ethics has been attended to less.
The objective of this study is surveying the experience of nursing students with respect to the role of instructors in promotion of professional ethics.
This qualitative study enrolled 15 undergraduate nursing students from three nursing schools in Teheran whom depth interview was performed. The interview was semi-structured with open ended questions. The analysis was accomplished by use of qualitative content-analysis method.
Data analysis demonstrated 2 main themes and 7 subcategories in regard to the role of instructors in promotion of professional ethics in nursing students including: 1) the effective professional role model 2) facilitating creative learning. The effective professional role model encompasses individual characteristics and beliefs, clinical skills and professional commitment of role model. Creative learning facilitates by encouraging critical thinking and decision-making, Providing supportive learning conditions, providing proper space for sharing knowledge followed by evaluation and creative feedback.
The findings of this study provides a background for strengthening the role of instructors in promotion of professional ethics with more emphasis on research which increase capability of instructors at nursing education centers.
Caring relationship: the core component of patients' rights practice as experienced by patients and their companions
The aim of this article is to describe how Iranian patients and their companions explain their lived experiences with caring relationships in a central teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran.
Despite a large number of theoretical articles on this topic, the meaning of caring is still ambiguous, particularly in specific cultures. In Iran, there is not enough qualitative evidence on this topic to indicate what patients actually mean when they refer to caring relationship. This article explores how Iranian patients and their companions perceive and describe caring relationships as an element of patients' rights practice.
This is part of a phenomenological research on patients' rights practice in Iran conducted during 2003-2006. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 patients/companions, and van Mannen's approach was used for thematic analysis.The ethics committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences approved the study.
Patient-centered care, compassion, effective communication, support/advocacy, informed participation and meeting patients' basic needs were found to be the key elements in defining caring relationships. These themes were all described as elements of patients' rights practice issues.
The results indicated that it is necessary for care givers/nurses to understand the person who will receive care in order to provide zealous and authentic care, because feeling "to be cared for" is even more important than providing the "care" itself.
In this study we discuss our experience of including an ethics objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) station in endocrinology board exam. One OSCE station on truth telling was developed and a standardized patient was trained for role playing in this station. Based on a pilot study, the evaluation checklist got modified. Then the finalized station added into the OSCE phase of endocrinology board exam. Based on this experience, adding ethics station in board exams is practical and reasonable. Since OSCE method could evaluate students' ethical decision making and communication skill it could be used in combination with other kinds of evaluation in assessing ethics competency of graduates. Using this method could push the ethics learning approach toward more practical and skill based ones.
The purpose of the present study was to explore nurses’ perception about spirituality and spiritual care. A qualitative content analysis approach was conducted on 20 registered nurses interviewed using unstructured strategy in 2009. Three themes emerged from the data analysis: 1) “meaning and purpose of work and life” including ‘spiritualistic view to profession’, ‘commitment and professional responsibility’, and ‘positive attitude’; 2) “religious attitude” including ‘God approval’, ‘spiritual reward’, ‘taking advice’, ‘inner belief in the Supreme Being’, ‘faith-based interactions and altruism’; 3) “transcendence-seeking” including ‘need for respect’ and ‘personal–professional transcendence’. Therefore, the spirituality produces maintenance, harmony and balance in nurses in relation to God. Spiritual care focuses on respecting patients, friendly and sympathetic interactions, sharing in rituals and strengthening patients and nurses’ inner energy. This type of spirituality gives a positive perspective to life and profession, peaceful interactions, a harmonious state of mind, and acts as a motivator among nurses to promote nursing care and spirituality.
The necessity of observing ethical liability in bioethics: Instruction of the principles of bioethics should be launched from school