Breaking Bad News Protocol for Cancer Disclosure: An Iranian Version

  • Parvaneh Abazari Assistant Professor, Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
  • Fariba Taleghani Professor, Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
  • Simin Hematti Associate Professor, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
  • Azadeh Malekian Researcher, Psychosomatic Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
  • fariborz Mokarian Assistant Professor, Cancer Prevention Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
  • Sayyed Mohammad Reza Hakimian Cancer Prevention Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
  • Maryam Ehsani Assistant Professor, Nursing Department, Islamic Azad University Complex, Tonekabon, Iran
Keywords: Bad News, Protocol, Cancer Disclosure

Abstract

In Iran, as in many Asian and Middle Eastern countries, a significant proportion of cancer patients are never informed of their illness. One of the proposed solutions to tackle this challenge is to develop a localized protocol based on the culture and values of community members about cancer and the truth-telling phenomenon, and training of health care team members to disclose the bad news using this protocol. In the same vein, this study also introduced a localized protocol for disclosure of bad news to cancer patients, resulting from a larger mixed study (qualitative-quantitative). The implementation of the present protocol demands a team work and its stages are as follows: assessment, planning, preparation, disclosure, support and conclusion.

References

1. Al-Mohaimeed AA, Sharaf FK. Breaking bad news issues: a survey among physicians. Oman Med J. 2013; 28: 20-25.
2. Salem A, Salem AF. Breaking bad news: Current prospective and practical guideline for muslim countries. J Canc Educ. 2013; 28: 790-94.
3. Tabak N, Itzhaki M, Sharon D, Barnoy S. Intentions of nurses and nursing students to tell the whole truth to patients and family members. J Clin Nurs. 2013; 22(9-10): 1434-41.
4. Xue D, Wheeler JL, Abernethy AP. Cultural differences in truthtelling to cancer patients: Chinese and American approaches to the disclosure of 'bad news'. Prog Palliat Care. 2011; 19: 125-31.
5. Faridhosseini F, Samimi Ardestani M, Shirkhani F .Disclosure of cancer diagnosis: what Iranian patients do prefer? Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2010; 9(Suppl 1):S165.
6. Motlagh A, Yaraei N, Mafi AR, et al. Attitude of cancer patients toward diagnosis disclosure and their preference for clinical decisionmaking: a national survey. Arch Iran Med. 2014; 17: 232-40.
7. Karimi Rozveh A, Nabi Amjad R, Karimi Rozveh J, Rasouli D. Attitudes toward telling the truth to cancer patients in Iran: a review article. Int J Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Res. 2017; 11(3): 178- 84.
8. Janbabaei G, Hesamzadeh A, Esmaeili R. A review of approaches for disclosing cancer diagnosis to the patients. Clin Exc. 2014; 3(1): 12-28. [in Persian]
9. Buckman RA. Breaking bad news: the S-P-I-K-E-S strategy. Community Oncology. 2005; 2(2): 138-142.
10. Costantini A, Baile WF, Lenzi R, et al. Overcoming cultural barriers to giving bad news: feasibility of training to promote truth-telling to cancer patients. J Cancer Educ. 2009; 24(3): 180-5.
11. Arbabi M, Roozdar A, Taher M, et al. How to break bad news: physicians' and nurses' attitutes. Iran J Psychiatry. 2010; 5(4): 128-33.
12. Arbabi M, Rozdar A, Taher M, et al. Patients' Preference to hear cancer diagnosis. Iran J Psychiatry. 2013; 9(1): 8-13.
13. Labaf A, Jahanshir A, Baradaran H, Shahvaraninasab A. Is it appropriate to use Western guidelines for beaking bad news in non-Western emergency departments? A patients' perspective. Clin Ethics. 2015; 10: 13-21.
14. Zahedi F. The challenges of truth telling across cultures: a case study. J Med Ethics History Med. 2011; 4: 1-9.
15. Kagawa-Singer M. Teaching Culturally Component Communication with Diverse Ethcis Patients and Families. New York: Springer; 2013.
16. Jalali M, Nasiri A, Abedi H. Patients and family members' experience regarding receiving bad news from health providers. J Med Ethics Hist Med. 2014; 7, 83-93.
17. Valizadeh L, Zamanzadeh V, Sayadi L, Taleghani F, Howard F, Jeddia A. Truth-telling and hematopoietic stem cell transplanation: Iranian nurses' experiences. Nurs Ethics. 2014; 21(5): 518-29.
18. Ehsani M. Developing and implementing truth telling protocol for cancer patients: A mixed-methods study. Isfahan. Isfahan University of Medical Sciences; 2017.
19. Ehsani M, Taleghani F, Hematti S, Abazari P. Perceptions of patients, families, physicians and nurses regarding challenges in cancer disclosure: a descriptive qualitative study. Euro J Oncol Nurs. 2016; 25: 55-61.
20. Abazari P, Taleghani F, Hematti S, Ehsani M. Exploring perceptions and preferences of patients, families, physicians, and nurses regarding cancer disclosure: a descriptive qualitative study. Support Care Cancer. 2016; 24(11), 4651-9.
21. Narayanan V, Bista B, Koshy C. 'Breaks' protocol for breaking bad news. Indian J Palliat Care. 2010; 16: 61-5.
22. Clayton JM, Hancock K, Butow PN, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for communicating prognosis and end-of-life issued with adults in the advanced stages of a life-limiting illness, and their caregivers. Med J Aust. 2007; 186(Suppl 12): S77, S79, S83-108.
23. Tsoussis S, Papadogiorgaki M, Markodimitraki E, et al. Disclosure of cancer diagnosis: the Greek experience. J BUON. 2013; 18(2): 516-26.
24. Bou Khalil R. Attitudes, beliefs and perceptions regarding truth disclosure of cancer-related information in the Middle East: a review. Palliat Support Care. 2013; 11(1): 69-78.
25. Aein F, Delaram M. Giving bad news: a qualitative research exploration. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2014; 16(6): e8197.
26. Zamanzadeh V, Rahmani A, Valizadeh L, et al. The taboo of cancer: The experinces of cancer disclosure by Iranian patients, their family members and Physicians. Psychooncology. 2013; 22(2), 396-402.
27. Barclay JS, Blackhall L, Tulsky J. Communication strategies and cultural issues in the delivery of bad news. J Palliat Med. 2007; 10(4): 958-77.
28. Attari A, Malekiyan A. How to Break Bad News. Tehran: Nashreghatreh; 2009. [ in Persian]
29. Lim J, Yi J. The effect of religiosity, spirituality and social support on quality of life: a comparison between Korean American and Korean breast and gynecological cancer survivors. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2009; 36(6): 699-708.
30. Norris L, Walseman K, Puchalski CM. Communicating about spiritual issues with cancer patients. New York: Springer; 2013.
Published
2018-01-03
How to Cite
1.
Abazari P, Taleghani F, Hematti S, Malekian A, Mokarian fariborz, Hakimian SMR, Ehsani M. Breaking Bad News Protocol for Cancer Disclosure: An Iranian Version. jmehm. 10.
Section
Review Article(s)