Rhazes’ pioneer viewpoints about psychiatry, neurology and neuroscience

  • Seyed Mahmoud Tabatabaei ORCID Mail Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Roozbeh Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Professor, Medical Ethics and History of Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Amirhossein Jafari-Mehdiabad ORCID Resident of Psychiatry, Roozbeh Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Keywords:
Rhāzes; Psychiatric disorders; Neurological diseases; History of medicine.

Abstract

After the emergence of Islam and its advancement in the past three centuries in various countries and the Muslims' acquaintance with civilizations emanating from the empires of Iran, Greece, and India, a civilization emerged that affected different aspects of people's lives in Islamic lands and other countries. One of the components of this civilization was medical sciences that were collected and compiled by Muslims using the resources of other civilizations and their own experiences and resources.
Rhazes (Muhammad ibn Zakaryyā al-Rāzī), who lived in the ninth century AD (fourth century AH), compiled a comprehensive textbook of medicine (named in Arabic: Al-Hawi fi al-Tibb) in all specialized medical disciplines in accordance with the latest achievements of his era. This book has been published in the contemporary period as a 25-volume collection and contains knowledge and experiences from the medical resources of various civilizations and Rhazes’ own knowledge and experiences. The first volume of this collection and some other volumes are devoted to the knowledge of neuroscience, psychiatry, and related diseases, illnesses, and disorders.
In this review, we cite topics from "Al-Hawi" and other Rhāzes’ manuscripts related to the definition and description of diseases and disorders associated with the nervous system as well as psychiatry and neurology and compare them with modern medical sciences in a comparative manner. This is intended to make their importance and validity clear in terms of usability as part of medical history as well as for some medical research that requires historical and contextual information.

References

Najmabadi M. History of Medicine in Iran After Islam. Iran: Tehran University Press; 1975, p. 324-442. [in Persian]

Elgood C. A Medical History of Persia and The Eastern Caliphate from the Earliest Times Until the Year A.D. 1932, 1st ed. UK: Cambridge University Press; 1951.

Tabatabaei SM. [Kholseye Ketabe Al-Hawi]. Iran: Mashhad University Press; 2008, Vol. 1, p. 97-108. [in Persian]

Rhazes M. [Al-Hawi Alkabir Fi Al-Tebb], 1st ed. India: [Daerat Al-Maref Al-Osmanya]; 1956, Vol. 1-25. [in Arabic]

Rhazes M. [Al-Mansoori Fi Al-Tebb]. 1st ed. Iran: Tehran University Press; 2009. [in Arabic]

Rhazes M. [Al-Tebb al-Rohani]. 1st ed. Iran: National Committee of UNESCO Press; 1962. [in Arabic]

Rhazes M. [Qesas va Hekayat al-Marza]. Iran: Tehran University Press; 1962. [in Arabic]

Rhazes M. [Al-Jodri va Al-Hosbah]. Iran: Tehran University Press; 1962. [in Arabic]

Rhazes M. [Mehnat al-Tabib]. Iran: Tehran University Pres; 1962. [in Arabic]

Alahwazi A. [Kamel Al-Sena-ah Al-Tebbiah]. Iran: Institute of History and Complementary Medicine; 2002. [in Arabic]

Avicenna H. [Al-Qanon fi Al-Tebb]: Manuscript & Digital Text. Tehran, Iran; 1880, Chap. 10, p. 1037-1045-1056. [in Arabic]

Albirooni M. [Saydanah]. Iran: Shaid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Publications; 2008, Vol.1, p. 54-82-115-216-366. [in Persian]

Ebn Al-beitar. [Al-Jame Lemofradat Al-Adwiah va Al-Aghdhiah]. Egypt: Boulagh Publications; 1879. [in Arabic]

Eshbili A. [Omdat Al-Tabib fi Marefat Al-Nabat]. [Dar Al-Gharb al Eslami]. Beirut, Lebanon; 1995, Vol.1-2. [ in Arabic]

Jorjani E. [Zakhireh Kharazmshahi]. Iran: Institute of Iranian Culture Publications; 1977. [in Persian]

Aghili Khorasani MH. [Qarabadine Kabir]. Tehran, Iran: Mahmoudi Library Publication; 1971, p. 44-441. [in Persian]

Galen, P. Handbook of anatomy. Manuscript Text. Translated: Honein ben Isac. General Number:809. Library of Goharshad Mosque. Mashhad, Iran. [in Arabic]

Tabatabaei, SM, Kalantar Hormozi AJ. Anatomy in Textbooks of Traditional Medicine. [Pajouhesh Dar Pezeshki]. 2010; 34: 79-85. [in Persian]

Motazed K. [Zakaryaie Razi]. Iran: Development of Iranian Libraries Company Publication; 1992, p.15-34. [in Persian]

Tabatabaei SM. [Al-Hawi fi Al-Tebb], 1st ed. Iran: Al-Hawi Pharmacy Company Publication; 1992, Vol. 1, p.129-53, 286-9, 293-8. [in Persian]

Sajadi MM, Sajadi MRM Tabatabaie SM. The history of facial palsy and spasm: hippocrates to Razi. Neurology. 2011; 77(2): 174- 8.

Sadock BJ, Sadock V. Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences/Clinical Psychiatry, 11th ed. USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2015.

Rhazes M. [Al-Obnah]: Manuscript Text. Iran: Library of Parliament: General Number:31059. [in Arabic]

Published
2020-12-12
How to Cite
1.
Tabatabaei S, Jafari-Mehdiabad A. Rhazes’ pioneer viewpoints about psychiatry, neurology and neuroscience. J Med Ethics Hist Med. 13.
QRcode
Section
Original Article(s)