Rhazes viewpoints about causes, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of gout


Gout, a medical condition of acute inflammatory joint disorders, has been recognized from the antiquity. However, the name of Rhazes, a Persian historic physician who has described the etiology, signs, symptoms, epidemiology, treatment and prevention of this malady more than a thousand year ago, hasn't been taken into consideration appropriately. In this article, we studied and reported several chapters of Alhawi which is considered the most important Rhazes's medical textbook, focussing on his hypotheses because he has described this disease more manifestly. His original manuscripts are originally written in Arabic and they hadn't been translated to Persian until 1998. We intend to compare Rhazes opinions about gout with those of the literature in the area of rheumatology. According to our findings, Rhazes documented the symptoms of gout and categorized them scientifically. His insights about the treatment of gout, side effects of pharmacotherapy and management of the patients are so interesting and wonderful. Generally most of Rhazes viewpoints about gout are correct and compatible with recent findings. More investigation on Rhazes' viewpoints can guide us to propose more reliable hypothesis and schematize cost effective studies by delving into past medical records.

Tabatabaei SM, Kalantar-Hormozi AJ, Sedaghat MR. Ophthalmology in Al-Hawi of Rhazes, comparing to modern medical literature. Pajouhesh dar pezeshki 2009; 33(2): 59-63. [Persian].

Tabatabaei SM, Kalantar Hormozi A, Asadi M. Razi’s description and treatment of facial paralysis. Arch Iran Med 2011; 14(1): 73-5.

Tabatabaei SM, Kalantar-Hormozi AJ. Viewpoints of Rhazes, Avicenna and other prominent Iranian traditional physicians about cancer. Pajouhesh dar pezeshki 2010; 34(3): 147- 51.[ Persian].

Ahern MJ, Reid C, Gordon TP, McCredie M, Brooks PM, Jones M. Does colchicine work? The results of the first controlled study in acute gout. Aust N Z J Med 1987; 17(3): 301-4.

Chen LX, Schumacher HR. Gout: an evidence-based review. J Clin Rheumatol 2008; 14(5 Suppl): S55-62.

Choi HK, Liu S, Curhan G. Intake of purine-rich foods, protein, and dairy products and relationship to serum levels of uric acid: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 52(1): 283-9.

Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, Willett W, Curhan G. Alcohol intake and risk of incident gout in men: a prospec- tive study. Lancet 2004; 363(9417): 1277-81.

Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, Willett W, Curhan G. Purine-rich foods, dairy and protein intake, and the risk of gout in men. N Engl J Med 2004; 350(11): 1093-103.

Rhazes (Mohamad Bin Zakarya al Razi). Alhawi Fitteb, vol. 11. India, Hyderabad: Osmania University; 1962.

Rhazes (Mohamad Bin Zakarya al Razi). Alhawi Fitteb, vol. 11, chapter 4th. Beyrouth: Dar Ehia Altorath Alarabi; 2002, p. 450-6.

Cronstein BN, Terkeltaub R. The inflammatory process of gout and its treatment. Arthritis Res Ther 2006; 8: 3.

Fam AG. What is new about crystals other than monosodium urate? Curr Opin Rheumatol 2000; 12(3): 228-34.

Handa R. Approach to seronegative arthritis. JIACM 2003; 4(3): 190-2.

Martinon F, Pétrilli V, Mayor A, Tardivel A, Tschopp J. Gout-associated uric acid crystals activate the NALP3 inflammasome. Nature 2006; 440(7081): 237-41.

Perez-Ruiz F, Naredo E. Imaging modalities and monitoring measures of gout. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2007; 19(2): 128- 33.

Pillinger MH, Keenan RT. Update on the management of hyperuricemia and gout. Bull NYU Hosp Jt Dis 2008; 66: 231.

Rammes A, Roth J, Goebeler M, Klempt M, Hartmann M, Sorg C. Myeloid-related protein (MRP) 8 and MRP14, calcium-binding proteins of the S100 family, are secreted by activated monocytes via a novel, tubulin-dependent path- way. J Biol Chem 1997; 272(14): 9496-502.

Mikuls TR, Farrar JT, Bilker WB, Fernandes S, Schumacher HR, Saag KG. Gout epidemiology: results from the UK General Practice Research Database, 1990–1999. Ann Rheum Dis 2005; 64(2): 267-72.

Reinders MK, Jansen TL. Management of hyperuricemia in gout: focus on febuxostat. Clin Interv Aging 2010; 5: 7-18.

Roddy E, Zhang W, Doherty M. Gout and nodal osteoarthritis: a case–control study. Rheumatology(Oxforf) 2008; 47(5): 732-3.

Schlesinger N, Detry MA, Holland BK, et al. Local ice therapy during bouts of acute gouty arthritis. J Rheumatol 2002; 29(2): 331-4.

Snaith M. A (very) short history of diets for gout. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2004; 43(8): 1054.

Tausche AK, Jansen TL, Schr◌ِ der HE, Bornstein SR, Aringer M, Müller-Ladner U. Gout--current diagnosis and treatment. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2009; 106(34-35):549-55.

Heber D. PDR for Herbal Medicines, 4th ed. New York: Thomson; 2004, p. 217-8.

Tubbs RS, Shoja MM, Loukas M, Oakes WJ. Abubakr Muhammad Ibn Zakaria Razi, Rhazes (865–925 AD: ). Childs Nerv Syst 2007; 23(11): 1225-6.

Wortmann RL. The management of gout: it should be crystal clear. J Rheumatol 2006; 33(10): 1921-2.

Zhang W, Doherty M, Pascual E, et al. EULAR evidence based recommendations for gout. Part I: Diagnosis. Report of a task force of the Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT). Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65(10): 1301-11.

Tabatabaei SM. Synopsis of Rhazes Alhawi, “ Continens of Rhazes”, Encyclopedia of Medicine. Vol 1. Mashhad: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences; p. 39-48.

IssueVol 5 (2012) QRcode
Gout, Rhazes, History of medicine, Iranian traditional medicine.

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Tabatabaei SM, Tabatabaei SMA, Zamani MM, Sabetkish N, Roshani F. Rhazes viewpoints about causes, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of gout. J Med Ethics Hist Med. 2012;5.