Islamic jurisprudential and ethical considerations of practicing medical procedures on nearly dead patients: Part II (Shiite jurisprudents’ viewpoints)
AbstractPart one of the present study presented practical Islamic jurisprudential rules and investigated their application to performing medical procedures on nearly dead patients. It was contended that a dying patient could be used in medical education in cases where there is no alternative method, provided the patient voluntarily consents and is not offended. Part two of the present study addresses the issue by referring to the opinions of Islamic jurisprudents to find an appropriate solution to a challenging question in medicine, namely, whether clinical training of medical students on the dying person is permissible. For this purpose, istiftas (petitions or requests for a fatwa) were sent to prominent contemporary Shiite jurisprudents to solicit their opinions on the use of dying patients for medical education. After exploring the existing views, it was finally concluded that the majority of the jurisprudents allowed the practice in cases of “necessity” and provided that the principles of “no harm” and “consent” were strictly observed. All these terms are found in jurisprudential rules, and we reached the conclusion that Shiite jurisprudents considered this type of training permissible under certain circumstances and in accordance with jurisprudential rules.
2. Safaei S, Abbasi M. No harm principle in Islamic jurisprudence and law and its usage in biomedical Jurisprudence. Bioethics Journal. 2015; 5(17): 33- 64. [in Persian]
3. Rajaei F, Mohaghegh Damad SM, Mousavi SMS. Legal and jurisprudential concideration of legal relationship of human to his body organs. Feghh va Hogheghe Eslami. 2011; 1(2): 45- 62. [in Persian]
4. Momen Qomi M. [Kalimat Sadideh Fi Masail Jadideh]. Qom: Entesharate Eslami; 1994, p. 163-178. [in Arabic]
5. Tabatabai MH. [Al-Mizan Fi Tafsir Al-Qur'an]. Qom: Jameae Modarresin fi Al-Hozeh Al-Elmiyeh; 1971, Vol.1, p. 21. [in Arabic]
6. Asghari Aghmashhadi F, Kazemi Afshar H. Man’s relationship with his body parts according to law and Islamic jurisprudence. Journal of Studies in Islamic Law & Jurisprudence. 2010; 1(1): 33-45 [in Persian]
7. Dargahi M. Investigation of the effect of man’s authority over his own organs in trading. Ma'rifat-i Hoghuqi. 2012; 1(3): 111- 130. [in Persian]
8. Mohaghegh Damad SM. Medical Fiqh. Tehran: Hoghughi Publication; 2010, p. 270-80. [in Persian]
9. Ali Akbari Babokani H, Shakeri M, Shamli N. The Last will and consent of the next of kin in removing organs. Islamic Law Research Journal. 2012; 10(29):197-233. [in Persian]
10. Tabrizi MJ. [Istiftaat Jaded]. 3rd ed. Qom: Entesharate Soror; 2006, p. 472-73. [in Persian]
11. Roohani M, Noghani F. Medical Jurisprudence. Tehran: Entesharate Teimourzadeh; 1999, p.126-42. [in Persian]
12. Montazeri HA. [Al-Ahkam Al-Shariah Ala Mazhabe Ahl Al-Bait Alihemo Al-Salam]. Tehran: Nashre Tafakor; 1993, p. 572-4. [in Arabic]
13. Wahid khorasani H. Islamic laws. Qom: Moassese Bagherololom; 2008, p. 576.
14. Mousavi Khoei SA. Articles of Islamic Acts. 2nd ed. London: Cultural and Guidance Section Al-Khoei Foundation; 1991, p. 640-41.
15. Banihashemi Khomeini SMH. [Tozihol Masael Marajea]. 2nd ed. Qom: Daftare Entesharate Eslami; 2014, Vol.2, p.1097-98. [in Persian]
16. Madani Tabrizi Y. [Tozihol Masael]. 26th ed. Qom: Danesh; 2002, p. 501-2. [in Persian]
17. Mousavi Ardebili SA. The Islamic laws. [cited 2018 December]; available from:http://www.ardebili.com/en/Library/View/1/685
18. Fazel Lankarani M. [Jameao Al-Masael: Al-Juze Al-Aval]. Qom: Entesharate Amir Al-Elm; 2004, p. 570-74. [in Arabic]
19. Garm Abdashti A. [Ahkam Va Istiftaat Behdashti Va Pezeshki Motabegh Ba Fatavaie Ayatollah Bahjat]. 4th ed. Qom: Moassese Entesharate Mashhoor; 2003, p. 45- 53. [in Persian]
20. Khamenei A. [Tashrihe Al-Maiyet Va Targhiea Al-Aaza]. [cited 2018 December]; available from: http://leader.ir/ar/book/12
21. Dargahi M. Analysis of the realm and domain of the “rule of aurhority” regarding the human’s authority over his body organs. Journal of Fiqh and Usul. 2016; 48(2): 45- 64. [in Persian]
22. Safai SH, Qasemzadeh SM. Civil Law Persons and Persons under Legal Incapacity. 8th ed. Tehran: Samt; 2003, p.20 [in Persian]
23. Aka Babayi I.Transplantation of Organs Taken from the Dead and Brain-Dead Patients (A Feqhi and Legal Study) .2nd ed. Qom: Research Center for Law and Islamic Jurisprudence and Culture Academy of Islamic sciences; 2007, p.76. [in Persian]