Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine 2015. 8(0):.

A Review of Ferdous al-Hekma fil-Tibb by Ali ibn Raban Tabari
Mohammadreza Ardalan, Kazem Khodadoust, Elmira Mostafidi


T Ferdous al-Hekma (Paradise of Wisdom) is one of the oldest medical texts in the Islamic world written in Arabic in 850 AD

by Ali ibn Raban Tabari. He was a Persian physician who moved from Tabaristan (Mazandaran province of modern day Iran) to

Samarra during the reign of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mutawakkil (847-861 AD).

We studied the book of Ferdous al-Hekma fil-Tibb, in an attempt to comprehend its general outlook on diseases of different

organs, their classifications and the associated signs and symptoms.

The book is one of the earliest medical pandects of the period of translation, adaptation and expansion of knowledge in the

Islamic world during the 9


century AD. Tabari was mainly influenced by Hippocrates, Galen and Aristotle, as well as his

contemporaries Johanna ibn Massavieh and Hunayn ibn Ishaq. The book is written in thirty chapters in a total number of 308


subtitles. In each part there is an introduction to the symptomatology, followed by organ specific diseases and therapeutic




Symptoms and physical signs of different diseases are vividly described in Ferdous al-Hekma, and some of them are even


understandable for contemporary medical students.




Ferdous al-Hekma, Paradise of Wisdom, Raban Tabari, Abbasid Caliph

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